OpenSpiel state methods: history

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Returns a list of actions taken by all players (including chance) from the beginning of the game.

In simultaneous-move games, joint actions are written out sequentially in player ID order.


import pyspiel

game = pyspiel.load_game("kuhn_poker")
state = game.new_initial_state()
state.apply_action(0)    # First player gets the Jack
state.apply_action(1)    # Second player gets the Queen
state.apply_action(0)    # First player passes (check)
state.apply_action(1)    # Second player bets (raise)

# Output: [0, 1, 0, 1]

game = pyspiel.load_game("matrix_pd")
state = game.new_initial_state()
state.apply_actions([0, 1])   # Cooperate, Defect
# Output: [0, 1]